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[M 35]

Messier 35

Observations and Descriptions

Discovered by Philippe Loys de Cheseaux 1745-46.
Independently discovered by John Bevis before 1750.

Messier: M35.
August 30, 1764. 35. 5h 54m 41s (88d 40' 09") +24d 33' 30"
Cluster of very small stars, near the left foot of Castor, at a little distance from the stars Mu & Eta of that constellation [Gemini]. M. Messier has reported its position on the chart of the comet of 1770, Mem. Acad. 1771, pl. VII. Reported in the English Atlas. (diam. 20')

[Mem. Acad. for 1771, p. 449 (first Messier catalog)]
In the night of August 30 to 31, 1764, I have observed a cluster of very small stars, near the left foot of Castor, little distant from the stars Mu & Eta of that constellation [Gemini]. When examining this star cluster with an ordinary [non-achromatic] refractor of 3 feet [FL], it seemd to contain nebulosity; but having examined it with a good Gregorian telescope which magnified 104 times, I have noticed that it is nothing but a cluster of small stars, among which there are some which are of more light; its extension may be 20 minutes of arc. I have compared the middle of this cluster with the star Eta of Castor [Eta Geminorum]; its right ascension has been concluded at 88d 40' 9", & its declination at 24d 33' 30" north.
[p. 457] 1764.Aug.30. RA: 88.40. 9, Dec: 24.33.30.B, Diam: 0.20. Cluster of small stars near the left foot of Castor [one twin in Gemini], at little distance from the stars Mu & Eta of that constellation. This cluster doesn't contain any nebulosity.

De Chéseaux: De Ch. No. 12.
[with No. 13 = M71] Two others of which I didn't yet determine the positions, one above the northern feet of Gemini, and the other above and very near to Sagitta.

Bode: Bode 14.
A nebula between small stars.

William Herschel
[PT 1818, p. 443. Repirnted in: Scientific Papers, Vol. 2, p. 598]
The 35th of the Connoissance. [M 35 = NGC 2168]
"1794, It is visible to the naked eye as a very small cloudiness."
"1783, 1784, 1801, 1813, 7 feet telescope. It is a rich cluster of stars of various sizes."
"1806, 10 feet telescope. There is no central condensation to denote a globular form."
"1784, 1786, 20 feet telescope. A cluster of pretty compressed large stars."
The profundity of this cluster does probably not exceed the 144th order. It is in the milky way.

John Herschel (1833): h 377.
h 377 = M35.
Sweep 58 (February 19, 1827)
RA 5h 58m 22.2s, NPD 65d 39' 13" (1830.0) [Right Ascension and North Polar Distance]
a L, coarse, p rich cl of st 9...16 m, which fills 2 or 3 fields, but chiefly one in which are about 100 stars.
A large, coarse, pretty rich cluster of stars of 9th to 16th magnitude, which fills 2 or 3 fields [of view], but chiefly one in which are about 100 stars.

Smyth: CCXXXVI [236]. M35.
CCXXXVI. 35 M. Geminorum.
AR 5h 59m 01s, Dec N 24d 21'.3
Mean Epoch of Observation: 1836.80 [September 1836]
A cluster, near Castor's right foot, in the Galaxy [Milky Way], discovered and registered by Messier in 1764. It presents a gorgeous field of stars from the 9th to the 16th magnitudes, but with the centre of mass less rich than the rest. From the small [faint]stars being inclined to form curves of three, four, and often with a large [bright] one at the root of the curve, it somewhat reminds one of the bursting of a sky-rocket.
Under favorable circumstances this cluster can be distinguished by the naked eye; it therefore may be comparatively near us. It must be sought on the line between Castor and Zeta on the tip of the Bull's southern horn, at exactly one-quarter of the distance from the latter: or a line led from Alpha Leporis through Betelgeuze, and extended 18deg beyond, will strike upon it.
This object being so handy to the point assumed by Hipparchus, as the north extreme of the ecliptic,I swept for anything which might be on the actual spot, under the necessary corrections, in AR 6h, and Dec N 23d 27'. After some search, I found a star of 12th magnitude, but too small [faint] for having its place differentiated for any permanent purpose.

John Herschel, General Catalogue: GC 1360.
GC 1360 = h 377 = M35.
RA 6h 0m 12.5s, NPD 65d 39' 16.9" (1860.0) [Right Ascension and North Polar Distance]
Cl; vL; cRi; pC; st 9...16 8 observations by W. & J. Herschel.
Cluster; very large; considerably rich; pretty compressed; stars from 9th to 16th magnitude.

Dreyer: NGC 2168.
NGC 2168 = GC 1360 = h 377; M 35.
RA 6h 0m 13s, NPD 65d 39.3' (1860.0) [Right Ascension and North Polar Distance]
Cl, vL, cRi, pC, st 9...16; = M35
Cluster, very large, considerably rich, pretty compressed, stars from 9th to 16th magnitude.
  • Observing Reports for M35 (IAAC Netastrocatalog)

    Hartmut Frommert
    Christine Kronberg

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    Last Modification: May 22, 2005