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[M 98]

Messier 98

Observations and Descriptions

Discovered by Pierre Méchain on March 15, 1781.

Messier: M98.
April 13, 1781. 98. 12h 03m 23s (180d 50' 49") +16d 08' 15"
"Nebula without star, of an extremely faint light, above the northern wing of Virgo, on the parallel & near to the star no. 6, fifth magnitude, of Coma Berenices, according to Flamsteed. M. Méchain saw it on Mar 15, 1781."

William Herschel:
December 30, 1783. "A large, extended fine nebula."
[1784. PT Vol. LXXIV (74), , p. 437-451, here p. 441]
"The difference [of Messier's and Mechain's observations on one hand, and Herschel's on the other] will appear when we compare my observation of the 98th nebula with that in the Connoissance des Temps for 1784, which runs thus: [Messier's description follows in Frebch, as translated above]. My observation of the 30th December, 1783, is thus: A large, extended fine nebula. Its situation shews it to be M. Messier's 98th; but from its description it appears, that that gentleman has not seen the whole of it, for its feeble branches extend above a quarter of a degree, or which no notice is taken. Near the middle of it are a few stars visible, and more suspected. My field of view will not quite take in the whole nebula. See fig. 1 of tab. XVII."

[Unpublished Observations of Messier's Nebulae and Clusters. Scientific Papers, Volume 2, p. 660]
1787, Jan. 14 (Sw. 691). vB. mE. [very bright, much extended], over 15' long, a BN [bright nucleus] in the middle.

John Herschel (1833): h 1132.
h 1132 = M98.
Sweep 24 (April 3, 1826)
RA 12h 5m 8.0s, NPD 74d 8' 12" (1830.0) [Right Ascension and North Polar Distance]
B; v m E; a ray, pos 70 deg sf to np; m b M almost to a nucleus; 10' long; 6 comae entered, bisected by horizontal wire.
Bright; very much extended; a ray, position angle 70 deg south following to north preceding [SE to NW]; much brighter toward the middle almost to a nucleus; 10' long; [star] 6 Comae entered, bisected by horizontal wire.

Sweep 419 (April 23, 1832)
RA 12h 5m 8.1s, NPD 74d 9' 0" (1830.0)
p B; v s b M to nucl; a long ray pos = 153.0 deg by meas; 8'...10'l, 30 br.
Pretty bright; very suddenly brighter toward the middle to a nucleus; a long ray in position angle = 153.0 deg by measurement; 8' to 10' long, 30 ["] broad.

Sweep 422 (April 28, 1832)
RA 12h 5m 8.4s, NPD 74d 9' 34" (1830.0)
B; L; m E pos 152.1 deg by meas; v s v m b M 8'...10' long. A fine object.
Bright; large; much extended in position angle 152.1 deg by measurement; very suddenly very much brighter toward the middle, 8'...10' long. A fine object.

Sweep 421 (April 26, 1832)
...., NPD 74d 9' 16" (1830.0)
B; L; v m E; p s b M; precedes 6 comae about 30' of space
Bright; large; very much extended; pretty suddenly brighter toward the middle; precedes [star] 6 Comae about 30' of space.

Smyth: CCCCXXXV [435]. M98.
CCCCXXXV. 98 M. Virginis [now Comae Berenices].
AR 12h 06m 01s, Dec N 15d 47'.2
Mean Epoch of Observation: 1837.25 [Apr 1837]
A fine and large, but rather pale nebula, between Virgo's left wing and Leo's tail; with the bright star, 6 Comae Berenices, following [East] in the next field exactly on the parallel. M. [Messier], who discovered it in 1781, merely registered it as "a nebula without a star, with an extremely faint light;" but on keeping a fixed gaze it brightens up towards the centre. It is elongated, in the direction of two stars, the one np [noth preceding, NW] and the other sf [south following, SE] of the object; with another star in the nf [north following, NE] quadrant pretty close. Differentiated with Beta Leonis, which star it follows by 6deg 1/2 in the direction of Arcturus; it lies on the outskirts of the vast region of nebulae that adorns the Virgin's wing.

John Herschel, General Catalogue: GC 2786.
GC 2786 = h 1132 = M98.
RA 12h 6m 40.0s, NPD 74d 19' 1.2" (1860.0) [Right Ascension and North Polar Distance]
B, vL, vmE 152.1deg , vsvmbM. 7 observations by W. & J. Herschel.
Bright; very large; very much extended in position angle 152.1 degrees; very suddenly very much brighter toward the middle.

[Dr. H.C. Vogel: Positionsbestimmungen von Nebelflecken und Sternhaufen zwischen +9d 30' und +15d 30' Decl. Leipzig, 1876]
[Drawing on Plate I, Fig. 6]

Dreyer (1877)
GC 2786, h. 1132 [M 98]. Drawings in Vogel, Plate I, Fig. 6.

Dreyer: NGC 4192.
NGC 4192 = GC 2786 = h 1132; Méchain, M 98.
RA 12h 6m 40s, NPD 74d 19.3' (1860.0) [Right Ascension and North Polar Distance]
B, vL, vmE 152deg , vsvmbM; = M98
Bright, very large, very much extended in position angle 152 degrees, very suddenly very much brighter toward the middle.
Remark: Figure in Vogel ["Positionsbestimmungen von Nebelflecken und Sternhaufen zw. +9d 30' und +15d 30' Decl." (Leipziger Beob. Band I)], plate I, fig. 6.

[Descriptions of 762 Nebulae ans Clusters photographed with the Crossley Reflector. Publ. Lick Obs., No. 13, Part I, p. 9-42]
NGC 4192, RA=12: 8.7, Dec=+15:27. An open, elongated spiral 8'x2' in p.a. 150deg. Bright stellar nucleus; numerous almost stellar condensations. Absorption effects on east side. Figure in Vogel I, No. 6 (Leip. Beob., Bd. 1). M. 98. See Abs. Eff. 30 s.n.
  • Observing Reports for M98 (IAAC Netastrocatalog)

    Hartmut Frommert
    Christine Kronberg

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    Last Modification: February 20, 2005